Trapping Coyotes: Sets To Trap Problem Coyote

Trapping coyotes is more rewarding compared to other furbearers. Trapping coyotes is much more gratifying because they are much more cunning and tactful than other furbearers. If you run a trap line long enough you will come across a coyote that is hard to trap. Trapping coyotes that have escaped your trap or has busted one of your sets is not an easy task. A little preparation and a little step back, trapping coyotes no matter how trap shy they are can be an easier task than once thought.

Coyote Digging Traps

Nothing is more frustrating than walking up to a trap that has been sprung by a wise coyote. Your best bet in this situation is to pull the trap because you have been had. Trapping coyotes from this location will be next to impossible. Trappers may often attribute the sprung trap to the wariness nature of the coyote, and fail to evaluate they may be the one doing something wrong.

In this situation it could be how you have set the trap or an issue with how you are carrying your trapping gear. The coyote is digging up the trap because it smells something on the trap. The most common cause for scent to be on your trap is the traps and tools/ scents are being carried in the same compartment. The best course of action is to clean your traps and keep them separate from then on. Now you are ready to reset the trap.

The Wise Coyote

Trapping coyotes that have escaped a trap before may be the hardest of all coyotes to trap. For good reason they know the potential dangers. Trapping coyotes that have had a previous encounter with a trap will avoid your set altogether if it has a faintest hint of something amiss.

In this situation a trapper must be fully aware of the entire process of making a coyote set. This includes paying very close attention to scent contamination, for example don’t put your traps in with your scents and try to make your close and yourself as scentless as possible. Also trap placement and bedding of the trap, and the creation of the coyote set.

If still you can’t trap the wise coyote try a hay set. This should be constructed in a short grassy field. First take two NO. 3 footholds and place them about 18 to 24 inches apart. Then cover the traps lightly with hay, and create a small mound of hay in between the traps. Next add an appropriate amount of gland lure or bait to the center of the mound. The set should be the size of a 2 to 3 foot circle.

The science behind the hay bale set is it place with the coyote’s instinct to catch food. Coyotes encounter hay all the time and associate it with food, generally mice. Instead of approaching the hay cautiously, they approach with ease. When going after mice coyotes jump into the air and land on the hay trying to trap the mice. But hopefully in this case it will be a trap they land on.

The Shy Coyotes

A trap shy coyote is one that is able to identify traps that are out of the ordinary surroundings. Many times a coyote is able to identify sets because of over used scents. Tappers generally use too much gland lures and baits in a basic set. This smells will be associated with the sets and will trigger alarms that will keep the trap shy coyote far away.

To remedy this try to use baits and lures that has not been used in the area yet. Try to make your own. Chances are the coyote has not smelled your homemade lure yet. Another option is to use a scent post set. Bed the trap carefully and put only a drop or two of urine from fox, coyote, or bobcat on what you are using for a post. Coyote encounter this type of scent marking all the time in the woods.

Trapping coyote that have seen all the tricks you are trying to throw at it can be frustrating at times. If a coyote isn’t falling for your sets it’s for a reason. Sometimes you need to step back and try switching it up a little, and sometimes it can be the small things that make a difference.

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7 Hot Deer Hunting Tips For Taking Big Whitetail Bucks

Looking to harvest that elusive big buck? Are you sold out to getting one or do you just dream about it? There is no education better than being out in the wilds seeing, experiencing, reading signs, adjusting to seasons, weather and other factors. You must understand that your ability to harvest a big buck will completely rely on your willingness to adjust your thinking, your tactics and your determination to find and ultimately harvest that animal you have your mind set on. Let start:

1. Taking Big Bucks Requires Exceptional Tactics. You will not bag a trophy buck by using standard techniques like everyone else. In fact, it probably does not matter if there are big bucks in the area you hunt. The truth is that if you’re using all the normal tactics you will not get the monster. The really BIG bucks are old bucks. They do not grow old by falling prey to the normal tactics the majority of hunters use. Make sense?

2. You must hunt where big bucks live! It is so obvious, yet how many days or seasons have you spent hunting in areas where you never saw a really big buck? You must realize that not all areas hold even one really big buck, let alone a few. But it is a fact that some parts of different counties in the country hold many large bucks within a given area due to quite a few factors. Things like cover, food sources and other nutrition, hunting pressure, and genetics play a huge role in finding areas that hold big bucks. We sometimes deceive ourselves. We HOPE they are there. If your overriding goal is to find that monster – you need to find out where they are and hunt there. You cannot shoot what does not exist.

3. Be selective in what you shoot – do not shoot small bucks. Think about this – in most cases after you harvest your buck you are done for the season – so if your goal is to shoot a monster why do you harvest a smaller one? Let the smaller ones go, let them mature into bigger bucks, and wait for your monster to appear. Most veteran hunters that shoot big bucks will tell you that the larger bucks follow the smaller ones out – the big ones are much more weary. That is how they get to be monsters. If you are satisfied with shooting a smaller buck than you set your goal to shoot, then you are compromising and your interest and desire are lacking. If you are committed to taking the big one, do not take the first buck you see unless it meets your goal!

4. You will find that big bucks will frequently have wet feet. Huh? Yep – find areas where there is a creek bottom or lowland wet areas such as a swamp and other wetlands. Talk to the experienced hunters who have shot big bucks…. most of them will tell you that big bucks like to frequent the heavy cover and are loners in these areas. They like the thick cover the wetlands produce because it gives them security. Also, deer are excellent swimmers. It is nothing for them to swim major rivers, let alone creeks and lakes. When pressure increases the big bucks head for cover.

5. Let the experienced and successful hunters be your role models. It is no different than any sport or avocation. If you want to be great, if you want the big prize, if you really want that big buck you need to learn and do what other successful whitetail hunters have done to harvest their big bucks. While no situation is identical, remember that the 1% or 2% of the top deer hunters are very disciplined and have developed methods and skills that work consistently. They know and talk to others about deer locations, sightings, behavior, etc. Luck has helped some over time but by and large the hunters who take the big ones year after year know things you do not. Or perhaps they are more persistent.

6. Big, Old Bucks are unique and you must adjust your hunting accordingly. Some say you have to treat them like a different animal or a different species if you’re going to take one. Besides being older, they are wiser, heavier, more mellow, slower, and much more deliberate in their actions. The fact that they got to 4, 5, or 6 years old is an indication that they found a safe way to exist and avoid the hunters. These big boys will not typically run at the slightest pressure – they may hold tight. I have heard story after story about how smart the old bucks can be – they will swim, crawl, hold tight in cover, and use their natural color and stealth methods to avoid even the most experienced hunters. You must use different tactics for these big boys.

7. Hunt long and often. There is no exception to this rule. Big bucks are seldom taken by hunters who don’t spend lots of time in the field. If you only hunt a couple hours in the morning and a couple more in the evening you’re missing some of the best hours to bag a big buck! Lots of B+C bucks are taken in the late morning and noon hours. Surprised? Also, during the rut lots of big bucks have been seen checking their scrapes during the noon hour.

Get out in the field, scout those areas, then plan your approach and tactics. There’s so much more to deer hunting tactics and methods but these 7 Hot tips are a start.

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Tree Stand – Prevent Legs From Sinking Into the Ground

Never again experience a ladder tree stand sinking into the ground. There are numerous brands of ladder tree stands for deer hunting. Many of them are constructed of hollow square tubing with no cap on the bottom section to prevent legs from sinking into the ground.

If the ladder stand is erected and put into use, the legs will progressively sink deeper into the ground with each use. When this occurs, it becomes necessary to re-secure it to the tree since the sinking has caused the seat to develop a slant that is very uncomfortable.

There are a number of ways to prevent the legs from sinking into the ground. One approach is to sink both legs into the ground to the depth of the first ladder rung which will provide adequate support to prevent further sinking. This can be difficult due to tree roots or rocks. However, if this approach is successful, you have lost some height of the ladder stand. Another disadvantage, the legs will tend to rust off while in the moist soil, creating a safety hazard.

A simple effective way to prevent the tree stand legs from sinking into the ground is by installing a support base by inserting a flattened length of metal pipe into each leg. This is accomplished as follows:

Cut two 6 inch lengths of 3/4 inch galvanized EMT metal conduit, one for each leg.

Use a hammer or vice to completely flatten five inches of each piece of pipe.

Place the flattened section of pipe in the vice. Using a rigid screw driver or other metal tool, bend the pipe to a 90 degree bend.

Insert the short round end of the metal pipe into the hollow square legs of the ladder tree stand. The flattened section of metal pipe provides a support base for each leg of the ladder.

In the event the round end of the pipe does not fit into the legs of the tree stand, it can be squared up with a few taps of a hammer for an easy fit.

An alternative method to preventing your ladder stand from sinking into the ground. This is accomplished by bolting a 3/4″ EMT metal conduit to each leg of the stand approximately one inch above the ground. This will require drilling of holes in each leg of the ladder stand and each end of the metal conduit. This will allow for well anchored legs and will not allow sinking beyond the pipe.

Each of the above techniques requires approximately the same amount of time and effort. Either technique can be used with confidence while deer hunting from your favorite ladder tree stand. The only sinking feeling you will get is after shooting your deer and realizing you missed.

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5 Ways to Care For Your Hunting Or Survival Knife

You have a great knife that you can’t leave behind when you hit the great outdoors. Your knife needs to perform to cut branches, skinning or cleaning your catch. At the end of the day or hunt your knife has performed as it should. How long your knife lasts is determined on how you care for it. To help you keep your knife in perfect condition here are a few tips to follow.

1. Specialty knives are just that, for a special purpose. For example: A skinning knife is used for that purpose only. You don’t want to use this knife to cut branches or use as a pry bar. You will only dull or ruin your knife altogether.

2.Cleaning your knife after each use is a must. The blade is important to clean, but don’t forget the handle and even the shaft. Use running water to clean your knife, remember never to soak your knife. Dry your knife thoroughly, because moisture on your knife can lead to rust, and a inefficient knife. Keeping your knife dry can be tough, especially if you are in a wet environment. Get in the habit of drying your knife off after use, especially if its your favorite knife. Use a leaf in the field to dry off your knife. If your knife is made of carbon steel, you can also use baking soda and water. Use just plain water and dish soap on stainless steel knives. Try to avoid touching your stainless steel knife. Acid left on the blade from your fingerprint can actually stain your knife, and overtime cause corrosion. Never put your knife in a automatic dishwasher, as the detergent contains abrasives and salt that can cause corrosion.

3. Oil your knife on a regular basis, this will prevent friction. Oil can provide a protective coating on the blade that keeps rust from forming. If you have a folding knife, oil is more important for the moving parts and joints. Use the same oil you use for your firearms or just household oil. Some oils can leave a aftertaste in your meat, in that case use a food grade mineral base oil. Be leary of oiling your handle as this will cause it to be slippery. Wood handles can be treated with linseed oil. Remember a little oil goes a long way. If your handle if made of rubber or artificial materials, nothing is required. But if you feel the need, treat it with armor all. Leather handles can be treated with mink oil. This also works good on sheaths. Bone or stag handles that have crevies should be cleaned with soap and water. Crevices and cracks in your knife can cause dirt buildup, which can draw moisture and can damage your knife.

4. Have your knife serviced when you notice you have a dull blade or your knife is losing its shine. If you don’t know how to sharpen your knife, it might be a good idea to take it to a professional and have them do it for you. There are professionals out there, you just have to look for them. There are even a few where you send in you knife through the mail, when they are done they send it back to you. Having a dull knife on your trip will only do more harm than good. If you have experience or think you can sharpen your knife yourself, go for it. Don’t be afraid to ask a professional for help.

5. Your knife should be store in a humidity free environment to keep it dry. Your leather sheath is a great place to store you knife in the field, but don’t keep it there for a long time. The chemicals they use in the leather sheath can cause damage to the blade of your knife. You need something non acidic to store you knife in. To store you knife for a long time, use paper and wrap your knife with it, then place it in a plastic bag with a desiccant to keep it dry.

A quality knife is designed to last a lifetime. With a little effort and proper maintenance you can enjoy your knife in the great outdoors for a long time.

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Explaining Binoculars Field of View (FOV)

Field of view is the amount of area that can be viewed through binoculars. The amount of area is the total left-right footage seen by your eyes through the binoculars.

The binoculars field of view is normally stamped on the binoculars and is typically expressed as “360FT/1000YD”. Which is read as “The field of view for these binoculars is 360 feet wide at a distance of 1000 yards”.

This means if your target was centered 1000 yards away, you would be able to also view 180 feet of terrain on both the left and right side of that target. Or if you were just scanning the terrain, you would be able to observe 360 feet of coverage at any given moment.

Better quality binoculars tend to have a field of view between 315 and 390 feet at 1000 yards. Those are general guidelines, but will satisfy field of view requirements for birding, hunting, marine activities, and most spectator sports.

Linear and Angular Field Of View.

Both of these readings will result in the same measurement at your target distance of 1000 yards.

Linear field of view is most commonly used as it is expressed in feet and yards in a factual statement (330FT/1000YD). That expression can be quickly understood to mean that at 1000 yards your will see 330 feet of left-right terrain with the binoculars.

The angular field of view is expressed in degrees. As an example, a reading of 6.3 degrees means that the view from the binoculars will expand outward 6.3 degrees from each of your eyes.

Conversion to either linear or angular field of view is done with the factor of one degree being equal to 52.5 feet.

Angular degrees of 6.3 will convert to 330.75 feet (6.3 degrees X 52.5 = 330.75 feet).

Linear feet of 330.75 will convert to 6.3 degrees (330.75 feet / 52.5 = 6.3 degrees).

Magnification Versus Field Of View.

The magnification and the field of view are two binocular features that work in opposition to each other. In general, the more powerful binoculars (12 X 50) will have a smaller field of view (290FT/1000YD), while less powerful binoculars (8 X 42) will typically have a wider field of view (380FT/1000YD).

Most binoculars tend to fall into either the 8X or the 10X magnification ranges because at higher power binoculars often have poorer quality images and smaller fields of view.

The most common linear/angular fields of view binoculars are between 6.0 degrees/315 feet and 7.5 degrees/390 feet. Wide angle binoculars begin at 8.0 degrees/420 feet and work upward.

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How to Outsmart Crafty Whitetail Bucks

Have you ever come across a buck while out deer hunting, that seemed to be smarter than you are? If you are an avid buck hunter, I’m sure you have, as most of us have at one time or another. It seems that whatever you try to do, he always seems to be one step ahead of you, right?

Well I’m here to tell you that it doesn’t have to be that way. Deer hunting whitetail hunting tips can make a big difference in the outcome of the hunt. Let me explain a little further. It may seem like the buck can read your mind. Although it may seem this way to you, we know that he really can’t. Evasive bucks as well as all bucks do what comes naturally to them in times of perceived danger. They flee, but sometimes they only hide and wait for you to pass.

Deer habits have taught the wise old buck many tricks to evade danger!

They have many ways to be forewarned of danger, which enables them to act accordingly, sometimes even before we get a chance to lay eyes on them. Lets look at some of the ways that they become alerted to danger. Every deer born learns important survival instincts from the doe deer that bore them.

Doe deer teach their young at an early age to hide and be still in times of danger, just as all caring parents strive to do. From this we learn that doe deer, plays a very important role in the young deers life. When a doe deer perceives danger, it alerts all deer in the area of the inherent danger, in several ways.

These doe deer habits are the key to many white tailed bucks survival rate!

When a doe is out in the open and it is content at feeding, its tail will sway back and forth in the down position. A buck may be close by observing the does’ actions, but it is hidden from view. If he can see the does feeding, he can tell if they detect danger by their reactions. However, what about the buck that can’t see the does’ reactions?

If danger arises, and the doe deer are alerted to the point of taking evasive action, they will give a vocal alert. This also leads to the doe deer taking flight. When leaving an area because of a perceived danger threat, their tail will fly left and right in the upright position, which is another warning to deer in the area.

This visual warning is referred to as a flag. It can be seen rather well in heavily forested areas, thereby alerting silently other deer in the area. So as we can see, besides their own acute senses alerting them of danger, a buck also has the help of any does’ in his domain. Now, for us to outsmart these bucks, it will take effort that you may have never considered before.

We must consider a bucks domain and what it includes.

  • Feeding Areas
  • Bedding Areas
  • Watering Areas
  • Hiding Areas Or Secure areas

Why do we need to know these areas and how well do we need to know these areas?

For starters, we need to know these areas as good as the deer in the area does to be able to plan our ambush correctly. Very Important! Wind direction always plays the most important factor in our game plan as well as how the deer will react. As wind conditions and directions change so must our game plan. The why part is obvious. Because deer always try to use the wind to their advantage, so should we in considering not just our plan of attack, but also how the deer will react.

Deer habits are crucial to the success of the hunt.

This is very important. If you want to consistently down a white tailed buck, you need to learn what he will do when he is in danger and where he will head, and what route he will use in any given wind direction. If you spend enough time in his domain through out the year, and record your findings on each outing, you will know how he will react, as well as where he will go and what route he will take to get there come deer hunting season.

This my friend is how you outsmart even the craftiest of bucks. Now, some things change during the fall hunting, such as food and water availability, as well as hunter pressure, so you will need to stay on top of the changes and make the necessary adjustments to your game plan.

Let hunter pressure work for you. You already know how, where, and why the buck will react if you do your homework, so you need to be where he will head when the pressure is on.

Yes to be a successful white tailed buck hunter you need to get out there and let the buck tell you his secrets, then and only then will you be in your very best position to outsmart even the craftiest of bucks.

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How to Skin a Deer & Tools-Hunting Knives Needed

The tools of the deer-care trade are a couple of skinning knives, a sharpening steel and a handsaw. Hang a field-dressed buck in a cool (40 – 50 degrees) place as soon as possible. For easy skinning, hang a buck from a gambrel. sing your Skinning Knife, cut up and through the hide on the inside of the hind legs. Make a circular cut around the joint of each leg. With the sharp point and blade of a knife, skin out the hindquarters. Saw off the hind legs below the joints.

To open the rear of a deer for cooling and skinning, saw a little ways into the pelvis. Start by skinning down toward a deer’s neck. Grab the hide and pull, most of it will peel right off. Cut off the tail. Don’t let the long hair get on the meat. Keep pulling and skinning the hide over the ribs and down to the shoulders. If you ARE NOT going to cape a buck for mounting, cut down into the brisket as far as possible. Saw off the front legs at the joints then cut along the insides of the front legs and skin them out.

If you DO PLAN to mount a buck, make the two primary caping cuts, again using a Buck Knife, around a buck’s body behind the front legs, and along the back of its neck and out to each antler. Pull and skin the hide down over a buck’s head. Saw off a buck’s head with long cape intact. Take your trophy to a taxidermist or freeze it as soon as possible.

Check for any dirt or hair and if you find any remove at once. Cut away any blood-shot meat around the bullet holes. If you want the hide tanned, wipe the bloody side clean with a towel lay it flat and spread borax or salt on the inside of the hide. Fold it lengthwise, hair out, roll up, tie, package and head for the taxidermist’s shop. Or again, freeze it and bring it to him when you can.

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Froggin in Mississippi

“Tastes like chicken,” says Lance Zender, a local outdoorsman from the Choctaw Bayou area. Lance is that oh so very southern of species–he is a frogger.

More than 30 types of frog and toad live in the Magnolia state according to the ASA. These range from the tiny inch-long Oak toad, which is the smallest toad in North America, to the huge American bullfrog, which is the largest at over 8-inches. In between are legions of chorus frogs, narrow mouthed toads, pig frogs, barking tree frogs, leopard frogs, and gray and white Fowler’s toads. The most popular with frog hunters are the olive to brown colored pig frog which can reach 6-inches in length, the Southern Leopard which is spotted green and brown, and of course the American bullfrog. To say the least, there is a very diverse and abundant frog population in the state.

The Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks (MDWFP) classifies frogging as Small Game Hunting along with rabbit, squirrel, raccoon, possum, and bobcat. The frog season in Mississippi lasts from April Fool’s Day to the end of September typically, and as such is the longest season of any game in the state at six full months. Currently the bag limit is set at 25 frogs and toads per night-that is fifty legs and a good meal for the whole family. Be sure to have your license, hunters ed card (if needed) and be up-to-date on your limits and seasons by visiting the MDWFP website.

Best areas to Frog

Oxbow lakes, gum ponds and almost anywhere you see lots of flying insects and lilypads is going to be an ideal place for the frogger to practice his art.

The marsh-rich Gulf Coast area, with its numerous wetlands, bayous, rivers and streams, are slightly warmer in the winter than areas north of I-20, and as such, the frog population continues to breed over the winter in many coastal estuaries. This means in the spring there is an explosion amongst the lily pads and swamp grass of frog overpopulation. These fertile breeding grounds of the Pascagoula river system for instance are home to as many as 109 species of fish, a unique species of turtle found only there, and all 30 of the known frogs in the state in its 9600-square miles of wetlands. It is quite literally a frogger’s paradise.

That’s where Lance works his magic.

Frog hunting techniques

Working from a flat-bottomed aluminum boat older than he is, Lance prowls the bayou on most weekend nights with a Q-beam spotlight and his half-brother Monroe, looking for the big bullfrogs. The team shares the hunt and the wealth, with one driving the boat and the other perched on the side, spotlight in hand.

“You look for eyes,” Lance explains. “As soon as your run that spotlight across the water, the eyes pop up like stars. Then head for the closest set.”

Once close enough to a keeper toad, it is up to the individual frogger as to how he takes them. Some people go ‘old-school’ and snatch the mesmerized fly-eater from its perch on a log or lilypad then toss it in the container. Others use a.22 rifle to pop the critter, and then scoop it up with a dip net. Still others gig for frogs, channeling the ancient hunter-gatherer with a spear experience still locked inside their DNA from before time.

“I’m a paddler,” boasts Monroe. The leather-skinned frogger explains that the term is what the locals use to describe the method of stunning the frog with a good smack of a boat paddle, then retrieving it as it floats around wondering what truck hit it.

To hold your frogs some sort of good solid container with a lid is preferred such as an ice chest, garbage can, or rubber made type container. Lance is a fan of pickle buckets with the lid tied to the bucket by a string so it does not fall out of the boat in the dark and float down the bayou. “Yea, that happened once.” Lance says

It is only natural that there is a more high-tech set who advocate fancier means of toad control. Some froggers use perch baskets. There are even local cottage industry manufacturers who sell specially made Frogging Baskets. Made with PVC coated wire and a rubber pinch top the baskets are designed to fit inside a 48-quart cooler and safely hold up to 150 frogs at a time.

That’s a lot of frog legs.

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Minnesota Bear Bait Station Regulations

Minnesota is one of the current US states that allow bear baiting by bear hunters. However, they have specific laws and regulations regarding this type of hunting practice. These regulations must be followed at all times; failure to due so can result in heavy fines and loss of hunting privileges. This article will explain the basics of Minnesota bear baiting regulations to help you follow them properly.

The first step is to know what you “cannot” use as bait for bears, below is a list of materials that are not allowed according to Minnesota hunting regulations.

  • More than 25% of an intact mammal carcass
  • Mammal meat that contains bones
  • Mammal bones
  • Waste containing; bottles, cans, plastic, paper or metal
  • Non-biodegradable materials
  • Swine (expection: cured pork)

Quick Note: You may not leave unattended 55-gallon drums, containers, garbage bags, pails plastic at a bear bait station.

In order to establish a station you must register it with the Minnesota DNR. You must mail in the required forms for an established bait station by the next available postal service day the bait station is created. All registered bait stations must display a sign of at least 6″x10″, which must be made of plastic, metal or wood. The sign must include the DNR number and driver’s license number of the owner OR the full name, address and phone number of the bait station operator. The sign must be placed no lower than 6 feet and no higher than 10 feet off the ground, and must be within 20 feet of the bait station.

You’re not allowed to establish a bear bait station within 150 yards of any registered camping site or within half a mile of a garbage dump. You cannot setup a bait station in bear permit area 22.

It should be duly noted that NO HUNTER is allowed to harvest a white bear, which was introduced in 1998. You’re not allowed to disturb bear dens or use methods to draw a bear from its den or harvest one near its den. Dogs are not allowed to be used as hunting aids, nor can you practice training dogs on bears. We hope this article has helped you learn more on bear baiting in Minnesota, if you’d like to learn more about bear hunting in general then continue below.

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What’s a "Wintu" Arrowhead?

Another arrowhead similar in size to the 1″ to 1-1/2″ long Gunther point is the Wintu. It shares many characteristics, the needle point, the sometimes serrated edges, the sharp corner barbed shape.

The primary difference between the Wintu and the Gunther is the shape of the tang which is used to mount the point on the arrow shaft.

In the Gunther point, the tang is usually a constricting, almost pointed shape, narrower at the very base. This shape results from the use of wide-based notches removed from the base edge of the point.

However, in the Wintu point the tang is made by long, narrow notches coming in toward the middle of the point from the corners or from the outer portion of the base line. This results in a flared, wider base to the tang. Sometimes, as in a gray obsidian example found by Jennifer Peterson in Siskiyou County, in far northern California in 1975, the notches are made from the very corners of the triangular arrowhead form, and extend almost all the way into the middle of the point.

I have two other examples, found by Jennifer Peterson and Pat Welch in northern California in the 1960’s and 1970’s, which illustrate quite well the basic design and knapping skill of the Wintu point makers. One is a black obsidian, the other gray. Both show a more common form of the Wintu, in which the notches are started out near the corners, from the outermost portion of the base line of the point preform. On each of these finely serrated points one of the barbs has been snapped off, perhaps at some time after they were made, possibly when used in hunts.

Aside from the single barb broken off, the points are in perfect condition, with amazingly sharp needle tips and wicked looking tiny serrations along the full length of the points’ edges. All of this work was done on arrowheads which measure barely 1 to 1-1/4 inches long and 5/8 to 3/4 of an inch in width. The tool tips used in the knapping were small enough to make 1/32 inch or less in width serrations!

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Copyright 2009, all rights reserved. F. Scott Crawford, Carrollton, Texas, USA

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